When considering options for buying real estate, we usually pay attention to very specific things: its cost, location, infrastructure and transport accessibility. The name and reputation of the developer and contractors also play a big role for many potential buyers. There are also buyers who are scrupulous about what materials the entrance group is made of and for whom it will be fundamentally important to have a playground in the courtyard or on the territory of a suburban village. Paying attention to all these things is normal and correct practice.
Nevertheless, there are such seemingly little things that are hidden from view, but in fact are not little at all and are even more important: these are environmental safety of the ground and the state of groundwater. Anastasia Dmitrieva, Deputy Chief Project Engineer of Metropolis, told in her commentary to Pronovostroy.ru what questions the designers pay attention to, and also where the buyer can get the necessary information about the state of the land for development.
- Is it necessary to do an environmental impact assessment of the land before building a residential complex on it?
First, let's figure it out:
When preparing documents for territorial planning, before the start of any design, construction and reconstruction of buildings and structures, environmental engineering surveys are carried out, which is determined by clause 1 of Art. 47 of the Urban Planning Code of the Russian Federation of December 29, 2004, No. 190-FL.
On the basis of these surveys, a study of the pollution of soil, surface, ground waters and air is carried out and the possibility of implementing design solutions in the selected area is determined from the point of view of compliance with environmental and sanitary standards.
Separately, environmental impact assessment is the establishment of the compliance of future economic or other activities with environmental standards and it may not be needed for the construction of a residential complex. The main purpose of environmental impact assessment is to prevent negative consequences of the planned activity for the environment. To a greater extent, it is carried out for projects of federal target programs providing for the construction and operation of economic facilities that have an impact on the environment, and part of the placement of such facilities, taking into account the regime of protection of natural objects.
- Are there any norms for the soil on which you can or cannot build?
The basis for conducting environmental engineering surveys is the requirements of section 8 of SP 47.13330.2016 (updated edition of SNiP 11-02-96) “Engineering surveys for construction. Basic Provisions ". To determine soil contamination, a Soil Passport is being prepared, based on GOST 17.4.2.03-86 “Nature Conservation (SSOP). Soils. Passport of soils. And other rules and regulations for determining the degree of soil contamination.
- What are the indicators of expertise to recognize land as hazardous to health and not allow building on it?
When assessing the ecological state of soils / grounds, it is very important to assess the content of both natural elements and compounds, and xenobiotic compounds. The assessment of the contamination of soils and grounds is carried out by comparing the content of polluting elements and substances in the studied soils, with their background content on the one hand, and on the other, with their maximum permissible content (MPC).
The list of indicators of chemical pollution of soils and grounds is determined based on the priority of the components of chemical pollution in accordance with the requirements of GOST 17.4.2.01-81 "Nature protection. Soils. Nomenclature of indicators of sanitary condition", SanPiN No. 126.96.36.1997-03 "Sanitary and Epidemiological Requirements for Soil Quality", GOST 17.4.1.02-83 "Nature Protection. Soils. Classification of chemicals for pollution control".
At present, in accordance with SanPiN 188.8.131.527-03 "Sanitary and Epidemiological Requirements for Soil Quality", the chemical study of soils and grounds during engineering and environmental surveys includes a standard and extended list of indicators.
The standard list of chemical studies of soils and grounds includes the identification of:
- The content of heavy metals of 1 and 2 hazard classes: lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), mercury (Hg), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni) and arsenic (As);
- The content of 3,4-benz(a)pyrene and petroleum products.
An extended list of studies is carried out in the case of the presence of certain specific sources of soil and ground pollution by determining a more complete nomenclature of polluting chemicals. The choice of indicators of chemical pollution depends on the expected composition of pollutants, taking into account the nature of the source of soil and ground pollution.
There are many different estimates of the chemical contamination of soil for different elements, such as oil products or heavy metals. However, in case of multicomponent pollution, the assessment of the level of chemical pollution of soils and grounds is allowed for the most toxic substance with a maximum content in soils and grounds.
- Who conducts such an examination and where can a potential buyer see its results? Is this information publicly available?
Examination of soils and engineering and geological surveys are carried out by companies that have specialized laboratories at their disposal. The data on the geotechnical surveys carried out are always in the public domain, and there is in the project declaration of the object.
- What is the most dangerous and harmful past of a potential building land (maybe factories, landfills)?
The most dangerous are traditionally considered soils on which industrial facilities (especially heavy and chemical industries), energy facilities and landfills were previously located. All these industries, despite numerous protective measures, affect the soil and contribute to the penetration of various heavy metals, radioactive substances and oil products into it.
Read the article on Pronovostroy.ru.