The growth of cities upwards is a necessary measure
The tallest skyscraper in Europe, the Lakhta Center tower in St. Petersburg, has been built in Russia. There are many other similar objects in our country, which differ not only in height, but also in unique architecture.
Why does Russia need skyscrapers and are we lagging behind other countries if we touch upon the technical side of the construction of such buildings? Dmitry Gorbik, Chief Project Engineer of Metropolis, told about this to the all-Russian portal Stroitelnaya Rossiya.
— Do I understand correctly that there is no single standard in the world regarding which building is considered a skyscraper?
— Indeed, the minimum height of a skyscraper is controversial. For example, in the USA and Europe, these include buildings with a height of 150 meters or more. And Emporis (a company that collects data on "high-rise buildings" from around the world) considers a building to be higher than 100 meters as a skyscraper, as opposed to just high-rise buildings (from 35 to 100 meters).
— What is the function of skyscrapers in the modern world?
— There are many architectural monuments preserved in the world, which are an example of vertical construction. As a rule, the upward growth of cities is a forced measure, a reaction to external limiting factors. If in the Middle Ages, such limiting factors were fortress walls, then in today's world, in the conditions of a modern city, these are cramped conditions and the high cost of building area.
— Why does Russia need skyscrapers?
— The rapid development of high-rise construction became possible as a result of the industrialization process, and the possibility of building skyscrapers appeared when a certain level of development of science, technology and construction technologies was achieved. Thus, the presence of skyscrapers is a kind of indicator of the level of development of the state. The history of the domestic construction of skyscrapers begins in the 30s of the last century, with the construction of "Stalin's skyscrapers" in Moscow. In modern Russia, the presence of skyscrapers can boast not only Moscow, but also St. Petersburg, Yekaterinburg, Vladivostok, Grozny, Arkhangelsk, Rostov-on-Don, Saratov.
— In the construction of skyscrapers in some countries today various innovative technologies are used. For example, on the roof of China's The Pearl River Tower, rain tanks with a water treatment and recirculation system are installed. How far are we behind in the implementation of such solutions?
— Yes, in the design and construction of these facilities, innovative technologies are often used. Considering the rather strict sanitary requirements and low cost of energy resources in our country, the use of renewable energy sources, such as geothermal heat, solar energy, etc., has not been used as often as, for example, in developed countries.
Nevertheless, some solutions have been implemented. For example, the use of heat from the primary circuit of refrigerating machines for preheating the coolant for the needs of hot water supply, heat recuperators in ventilation units, the use of energy recovery during the operation of elevators, etc.
— Is there a regulatory and technical base for high-rise construction in Russia today?
— According to the Urban Planning Code of the Russian Federation, Article 48.1, skyscrapers for at least one characteristic fall under the definition of a unique construction object, which, in turn, requires the development of Special technical conditions, which include personal regulatory requirements formulated for this building.
— You have experience working with stadiums, water parks, and other large facilities. In terms of the design of structural and engineering solutions, in terms of the complexity of work, what place do skyscrapers take?
— Designing this kind of objects has certain specific subtleties, but, in fact, is not a super-difficult engineering task, since any large building can be considered as a set of functional, structural and other blocks that require coordination and coordination.
— What high-rise projects have you participated in and what skyscraper projects are you working on today?
— As a design company with 15 years of experience in design in the field of structural and engineering solutions, we have in our portfolio a considerable number of high-rise buildings. Among them, the following objects fall into the category of skyscrapers:
- D1 - residential complex on Dmitrovskoe highway, 1.
- Multifunctional administrative and business complex Neva Towers (sections 17 and 18 of the Moscow International Business Center "Moscow City").
- Tower "Evolution" (sections 2 and 3 of the Moscow International Business Center "Moscow City").
- Residential complex The MID on Leninsky Prospect. 97.
- Multifunctional complex Vodny on Kronstadt blvd, 6.
- ZILART TOWER and ZILART DIAMOND are underway.
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