Background of land: how to understand that the LCD is built on "clean" land?
When considering options for buying real estate, we usually pay attention to very specific things: its cost, location, infrastructure and transport accessibility. A large role for many potential buyers is played by the name and reputation of the developer and contractors. There are also buyers who are scrupulous about what materials the entrance group will consist of and which will have the fundamental importance of having a playground in the courtyard or in the territory of a suburban village. Paying attention to all these things is a normal and proper practice.
Nevertheless, there are such minor trivialities that are hidden from view, but in fact they are not trifles at all, but are even more important: this is the environmental friendliness of the earth and the state of groundwater. Anastasia Akilova, Deputy Chief Project Engineer at Metropolis, told Pronovostroy.ru about what issues designers are paying attention to and where the buyer can get the necessary information about the state of the land for development.
Do I need to do an environmental review of the land before building a residential complex on it?
To begin with, let's figure it out:
In the preparation of territorial planning documents, before the start of any design, construction and reconstruction of buildings and structures, environmental engineering surveys are carried out, as defined in paragraph 1 of Art. 47 of the Town Planning Code of the Russian Federation of December 29, 2004 No. 190-ÔÇ.
Based on these surveys, a study is carried out on the pollution of soil, surface and groundwater, air and determine the feasibility of implementing design decisions in the selected territory from the point of view of compliance with environmental and sanitary standards.
Separately, environmental impact assessment is the establishment of compliance of future economic or other activities with environmental standards and it may not be necessary for the construction of residential buildings. The main goal of the environmental impact assessment is to prevent the negative consequences of the proposed activity on the environment. To a greater extent, it is carried out for projects of federal target programs that provide for the construction and operation of economic facilities that affect the environment, and part of the placement of such facilities, taking into account the regime of protection of natural sites.
Are there any norms for the soil on which it is possible or impossible to build?
The basis for engineering and environmental surveys are the requirements of section 8 of ÑÏ 47.13330.2016 (updated version of ÑÍèÏ 11-02-96) “Engineering surveys for construction. Key Points. ” To determine soil contamination, a Soil Passport is being prepared based on GOST 17.4.2.03-86 “Nature Protection. The soil. Soil passport. And other rules and regulations for determining the degree of soil contamination.
What should be the indicators of expertise to recognize the land as hazardous to health and not allow building on it?
When assessing the ecological state of soils, it is very important to assess the content of both natural elements and compounds, and xenobiotic compounds. Assessment of soil and soil contamination is carried out by comparing (comparing) the content of polluting elements and substances in the studied soils, with their background content on the one hand, and on the other with their maximum permissible content.
The list of indicators of chemical pollution of soils and soils is determined based on the priority of the components of chemical pollution in accordance with the requirements of ÃÎÑÒ 17.4.2.01-81 “Nature protection. The soil. The nomenclature of indicators of the sanitary state ”, SanPiN No. 22.214.171.1247-03“ Sanitary and Epidemiological Requirements for Soil Quality ”, ÃÎÑÒ 17.4.1.02-83“ Nature Protection. The soil. Classification of chemicals for pollution control. ”
Currently, in accordance with ÑàíÏèÍ 126.96.36.1997-03 “Sanitary and epidemiological requirements for soil quality”, chemical research of soils and soils during engineering and environmental surveys includes a standard and expanded list of indicators.
The standard list of chemical studies of soils and soils includes the definition of:
1. The content of heavy metals of hazard class 1 and 2: lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), zinc (Zn), mercury (Hg), copper (Cu), nickel (Ni) and arsenic (As);
2. The content of 3,4-benz (a) pyrene and petroleum products.
An extended list of studies is carried out in the presence of certain specific sources of soil and soil pollution by determining a more complete range of polluting chemicals. The choice of indicators of chemical pollution depends on the expected composition of the pollutants, taking into account the nature of the source of pollution of soils and soils.
There are many different estimates of chemical contamination of the soil for different elements, such as petroleum products or heavy metals. However, in case of multicomponent pollution, the assessment of the level of chemical pollution of soils and soils is allowed for the most toxic substance with a maximum content in soils and soils.
Who conducts such an examination and where does the potential buyer get acquainted with its results? Is this information made publicly available?
Soil and geotechnical surveys are conducted by companies with specialized laboratories at their disposal. Data on engineering and geological surveys are always in the public domain, and are in the project declaration of the facility.
What is the “past” of potential building land the most dangerous and harmful (maybe factories, landfills)?
Soils traditionally considered to be the most dangerous are those on which industrial facilities (especially heavy and chemical industries), energy facilities and landfills were previously located. Despite these numerous protective measures, all these industries influence the soil and facilitate the penetration of various heavy metals, radioactive substances and oil products into it.
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