In modern high-rise construction, new technologies are actively applied that help to accelerate work and realize the most daring architectural solutions. In Russia, the height of residential buildings continues to grow. According to a study by ЕРЗ.РФ, conducted jointly with the Commission of the Russian Union of Builders and Entrepreneurs for Construction and Housing Policy and the National Association of Housing Developers, at the end of November, the average number of floors of constructed residential facilities in our country was 17.8 floors. In comparison with the same period last year, the height increased by 0.7 floors (Construction Weekly, issue of 12/9/2019).
n total, the proportion of residential buildings under construction with a height of 25 floors is now 22.9% (in square meters). Over the year, the growth rate was 3.3%. The largest share of housing construction falls on houses with a height of 18-24 floors. The leader in high-rise construction is Sverdlovsk Region. This is the only region in the country where the share of high-rise construction exceeds 50%. The average number of floors of constructed housing is 22.4 floors. Moscow took only fourth place in the ranking. "High-rise buildings" in the capital's housing construction account for 42.4% of the total. But at the same time, Moscow leads in the maximum average height of new buildings - 23.9 floors.
According to experts, Petersburg is not among the top ten regions, occupying only 11th place in the ranking. The average height of the houses here reaches 18.1 floors, which is close to the all-Russian value. The height of residential facilities is limited by local law. Nevertheless, Petersburg has its own high-rise attraction. True, not related to residential buildings. The height of the multifunctional complex "Lakhta Center" is 462 m. Currently, it is the tallest building in the region.
Experts note: in modern high-rise construction, new trends are constantly emerging and developing. They are connected both with the architecture of objects and with their technological filling. This applies to residential buildings and office buildings. Moreover, the use of new technologies in design, the use of innovative materials make it possible to build a "skyscraper" in a shorter time frame than 10-15 years ago. In particular, in the construction of such objects, heavy-duty concrete, a special type of reinforcement, etc. are used.
According to Denis Dubinin, chief project engineer for Metropolis, high-rise buildings are considered to be unique for good reason: they are subject to more stringent requirements due to increased danger in the event of unforeseen and emergency situations. In addition, these special rules are explained by the need to ensure the comfort of people in the building and reduce the cost of operating the facility. When designing high-rise buildings, proper zoning is especially important to reduce the number of people moving between floors. In this case, the lift equipment should be selected carefully. It is desirable that it has a high degree of automation when the system determines the most advantageous use of existing elevators in a particular situation. Aerodynamic tests are required for high-altitude objects to determine wind loads - often they exceed seismic loads. Special requirements are also imposed on fire safety systems, evacuation of people, lightning protection. Systems must be not only efficient, but also more wear resistant than conventional buildings.
“Many high-rise buildings have a vast surface or even a whole glass facade. To comply with the principles of energy efficiency, such facades should be made of glass, which has minimal heat loss. This is necessary so as not to create additional loads on ventilation and heating systems in summer and winter, respectively. Special requirements apply to the maintenance of facades. In general, energy efficiency is very important for high-rise buildings, since the costs of engineering systems increase with each meter of height. To assess the decisions made, the buildings undergo certification of various types, for example, according to the LEED standard, ”says Denis Dubinin.
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