From generation to generation
The reconstruction of the Luzhniki BSA was carried out in order to prepare the main arena for the final of the 2018 FIFA World Cup. The multifunctionality of the arena allows it to host not only the most important sports competitions, but also high-tech mass cultural and entertainment events. The main task in creating the appearance and internal layout of the object was to preserve the historical architectural appearance of the stadium and compliance with FIFA requirements, including the protection of spectators from natural precipitation in the form of rain or snow.
Mohamed Nasser, Commercial Director of Metropolis, Alexey Kushchenko, Head of the Design Department of Metropolis, Petr Korsakov, Head of the Design Group of the Design Department of Metropolis, told Sport Build about the design and reconstruction of the stadium roof.
In 1956 - 1957 in Moscow, the Luzhniki Stadium was built with the main sports arena for 100,000 seats. The unique wide-span covering of the stadium was built in 1997. The roof erected above the BSA is a unique structure measuring 247.8 × 308.6 m. The roof height from the column head to the top of the structure is 25.6 m. The roof is supported by steel columns 25.7 m long, 800 × 800 section from sheet 16 mm. The roof structure consists of external and internal contours, radial beams, ring trusses and ties. The mass of steel roofing, taking into account the supporting columns and an additional visor, amounted to about 18,000 tons.
The main load-bearing structures and their elements are made of 10KHSND sheet steel with a design resistance of 380 MPa. Auxiliary roof structures are made of rolling profiles, steel C345. The roof covering is designed from sheets of cellular translucent polycarbonate on an aluminum subsystem. According to the 1995 project, a sliding roof was provided over the football field, which was supposed to move along the guides located on the inner contour. Since the option with a sliding roof was not implemented, a reserve of bearing capacity was formed. This made it possible to realize the idea of reconstruction, namely, to increase the roof in the form of a visor with a reach of 11,700 mm and hang two displays on the inner contour.
The frieze is made by Artemy Lebedev Studio
Calculation and design
To calculate the roof of the Luzhniki Grand Sports Arena, the Lira-CAD system was used. The calculations verified the bearing capacity, as well as local and general stability. Since the roof was an existing structure, several design schemes were created corresponding to the roof in geometry and boundary conditions. The main criterion for the correctness of constructing the schemes was a comparison of the results of calculations with the results of field observations and the results of calculations of the Scientific Institute. V.A. Kucherenko. The verification of the bearing capacity in the design schemes was carried out under the action of horizontal and vertical constant, long-term and short-term design loads in a spatial setting, taking into account joint work and boundary conditions (base compliance). The design scheme included more than 1 million elements. Using modern techniques, the design assumptions of the authors of the 1995 project were verified. The results obtained practically coincided with both the 1995 calculations and field observations. Calculations and modeling of the roof were carried out in close collaboration with the Scientific Institute. V.A. Kucherenko, Ph.D. Mikhail Iosifovich Farfel supported modeling and analysis of calculation results. Mikhail Iosifovich is also one of the authors of the roof project of the Great Sports Arena in 1995. Thus, when designing a unique structure, a generational connection was realized. For the period of reconstruction of the reinforced concrete frame of the stadium, it was necessary to disconnect the vertical ties that unfasten the roof from the structures of the stadium, since the entire frame was disassembled except for the facade. To unfasten the roof structure for the period of construction work, cross vertical connections between the columns were provided along the perimeter of the roof. Corresponding calculations were carried out, which confirmed the stability of the roof for the installation period.
General view of the coating with a visor made using the Lira-CAD design complex in 2013-14, and the design of the roof visor.
A visor was realized that covered the first rows of the stands of the reconstructed stadium from precipitation. Roofing panels were raised for smooth joining with a visor coating, which also positively affected the aesthetics of the object. A visor was realized that covered the first rows of the stands of the reconstructed stadium from precipitation. Roofing panels were raised for smooth joining with a visor coating, which also positively affected the aesthetics of the object. The drawings are made up of holes of different diameters, which creates the illusion of gradation of halftones. The dynamics of the illustrations is supported by the rhythm of the facade elements. The performance technique provides good ventilation and complies with fire safety standards. As part of the reconstruction, the protective and decorative coating of the main BSA roof structures was updated, the enlargement joints were revised, and high-strength bolts failed. Mounted media roof, which is clearly visible from the observation deck of the Sparrow Hills. According to the results of the reconstruction and the 2018 World Cup, FIFA recognized the Luzhniki Stadium as the best arena in the world by the appearance of the field from the stands.