What will last longer - a new building or housing of the last century?
Where are the building codes for modern high-rise buildings fixed? What is the period of their operation according to the standards?
All basic building codes regarding the construction of residential buildings are spelled out in the codes of rules (SP), GOSTs and Federal Laws, primarily in Federal Law No. 123. As for the standard operating period, the recommended terms are prescribed in GOST 27751-2014 and for buildings and structures of mass construction are at least 50 years. However, for each object during its design, the estimated service life should be determined, which is often much more than the recommended normative due to the application of the necessary measures to ensure the durability of the structures.
What are the real life cycles of new buildings? Is it possible to evaluate them from a practical point of view today?
On average, the life of mass construction facilities is about 100 years. However, depending on the design decisions laid down, the quality of work during construction and during ongoing and major repairs, the life of buildings and structures can vary greatly. The durability of the building is also affected by environmental aggressiveness. From a practical point of view, today we can primarily assess residential buildings of various series being built in the USSR, and they confirm the service life with a margin laid down during their design.
What are the challenges of modern homebuilding?
The main problem of modern homebuilding is the low level of work on construction sites, poor qualifications of builders, widespread savings on the quality of building materials in order to increase the profits of developers. Another problem is that many mass housing construction projects at the time of their commissioning are already obsolete from the point of view of their architectural, planning and engineering solutions. And it is separately necessary to highlight the excessive density and high-altitude of modern buildings, the lack of high-quality improvement and infrastructure.
Does the class of housing affect the service life? And the way to build? Which real estate categories are more reliable?
The standard operating periods must be maintained by all buildings, regardless of the class of housing. However, when designing buildings of the premium segment, more progressive and modern solutions are laid. First of all, we are talking about engineering systems and facade solutions, since they affect the temperature and humidity conditions in which the supporting structures of the building will “work” and, accordingly, extend their “life”. The method of construction is not as important as the quality and level of production of construction and installation works and building materials, as mentioned earlier.
What are the terms of operation of the housing stock of the last century? Do they differ by class (Khrushchev, Stalin, etc.)? If so, how?
The life of the housing stock of the twentieth century varies greatly depending on their type. So, “stalinkas”, depending on the year of construction (since, for example, the first “stalinkas” were in wooden floors, and only in the post-war began to use reinforced concrete floors), should last 125-150 years, but for panel “Khrushchevs” »A life span of only 50 years was laid, which they really easily exceeded thanks to the solutions laid down by their designers. All other series of buildings (brick 60s, panel and block 70-80s, etc.) on average have a life of 100 years. Differences in the level of quality of housing are also present, and the greatest contrast is visible between the "Stalin" and "Khrushchev". This primarily concerns the layout and size of apartments, the heights of their ceilings, the presence of elevators, etc.
From the point of view of technology, has the period of operation of buildings increased due to the use of modern construction methods? Is it possible to say that modern construction is more expensive than several decades ago? Or vice versa?
Most likely, it can be argued that yes, the service life of buildings has increased due to the use of modern construction methods, but it takes a long time to prove this in practice and it is important not to forget that the quality of this operation is a very important factor, which we see from the experience of previous buildings centuries. It is impossible to unequivocally answer the question of the difference in the cost of construction now or several decades ago, since many factors influence this: the cost of building materials and the working system s, the number and level of inherent engineering systems, their high cost, the design costs, etc. at different times were different.
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